Polls both by USA Today and Gallup have shown support for the moon landing has increased the farther we've gotten away from it. When Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon, a process began that has all but eradicated any reference to the substantial opposition by scientists, scholars, and regular old people to spending money on sending humans to the moon.
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Part jobs program, part science cash cow, the American space program in the s placed the funding halo of military action on the heads of civilians. It bent the whole research apparatus of the United States to a symbolic goal in the Cold War. Given this outlay during the s, a time of great social unrest, you can bet people protested spending this much money on a moon landing.
Many more quietly opposed the missions.
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Space historian Roger Launius of the National Air and Space Museum has called attention to public-opinion polls conducted during the Apollo missions. Here is his conclusion:. Consistently throughout the s a majority of Americans did not believe Apollo was worth the cost, with the one exception to this a poll taken at the time of the Apollo 11 lunar landing in July These data do not support a contention that most people approved of Apollo and thought it important to explore space.
We've told ourselves a convenient story about the moon landing and national unity, but there's almost no evidence that our astronauts united even America, let alone the world. Yes, there was a brief, shining moment right around the moon landing when everyone applauded, but four years later, the Apollo program was cut short and humans have never seriously attempted to get back to the moon ever again. I can't pretend to trace the exact process by which the powerful images of men on the moon combined with a sense of nostalgia for a bygone era of heroes combined to create the notion that the Apollo missions were overwhelmingly popular.
That'd be a book. But what I can do is tell you about two individuals who, in their own ways, opposed the government and tried to direct funds to more earthly pursuits: poet and musician Gil Scott-Heron and the sociologist Amitai Etzioni, then at Columbia University.
Heron performed a song called, " Whitey on the Moon " that mocked "our" achievements in space. The song had a very powerful effect on my historical imagination and led to me seeking out much of the other evidence in this post. Though I still think the hunger for the technological sublime crosses racial boundaries, [the song] destabilized the ease with which people could use "our" in that kind of sentence. To which America went the glory of the moon landing? And what did it cost our nation to put whitey on the moon? Many black papers questioned the use of American funds for space research at a time when many African Americans were struggling at the margins of the working class.
An editorial in the Los Angeles Sentinel , for example, argued against Apollo in no uncertain terms, saying, "It would appear that the fathers of our nation would allow a few thousand hungry people to die for the lack of a few thousand dollars while they would contaminate the moon and its sterility for the sake of 'progress' and spend billions of dollars in the process, while people are hungry, ill-clothed, poorly educated if at all.
This is, of course, a complicated story. When black protesters marched on Cape Canaveral to protest the launch of Apollo 14, one Southern Christian Leadership Conference leader claimed, "America is sending lazy white boys to the moon because all they're doing is looking for moon rocks. If there was work to be done, they'd send a nigger. But another SCLC leader, Hosea Williams, made a softer claim, saying simply they were "protesting our nation's inability to choose humane priorities.
The most magnificent thing I've seen in my whole life. Perhaps the most comprehensive attempt to lay out the case against the space program came from the sociologist Etizioni, in his now nearly impossible to find book, The Moon-Doggle: Domestic and International Implications of the Space Race. Luckily for you, I happen to have a copy sitting right here. Etzioni attacked the manned space program by pointing out that many scientists opposed both the mission and the "cash-and-crash approach to science" it represented.
He cites a report to the President from his Science Advisory Committee in which "some of the most eminent scientists in this country" bagged on our space ambitions. It concludes, "It would not be in the national interest to exploit space science at the cost of weakening our efforts in other scientific endeavors. An election is held in which Mannie, Wyoh, and the Professor are elected possibly by the intervention of Mike.
The Federated Nations on Earth send armies to destroy the Lunar revolution, but these are vanquished, with great loss of life, by the revolutionaries.
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The rumor is circulated that Mike's alter ego Adam Selene was among those killed, thus removing the need for him to appear in the flesh. When Mike launches rocks at sparsely populated locations on Earth, warnings are released to the press detailing the times and locations of the bombings, but disbelieving people, as well as people on religious pilgrimages, travel to the sites and die. As a result, public opinion turns against the fledgling nation.
A second attack destroys Mike's original catapult, but the Loonies have built a secondary, smaller one in a secret location, and with Mannie acting as its on-site commander, the Loonies continue to attack Earth until it concedes Luna's independence. Professor Bernardo de la Paz, as leader of the nation, proclaims victory to the gathered crowds, but collapses and dies. Mannie takes control, but Wyoh and he eventually withdraw from politics altogether, and find that the new government falls short of their expectations.
When Mannie tries to speak to Mike afterwards, he finds out that the computer has lost its self-awareness and its human-like qualities. The first sixth of the book relates the discussions between the protagonists justifying and plotting the revolution; the next quarter describes the year-long revolution itself.
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The remainder of the book recounts events occurring in the months after the revolution in May , and a week or so of events in October leading up to capitulation by Earth. Professor Bernardo de La Paz describes himself as a "Rational Anarchist", a name probably invented in the text itself.
The desire for anarchy is balanced by the logic that some form of government is needed, despite its flaws. When challenged by Wyoh, Professor de la Paz replies, "In terms of morals there is no such thing as a 'state'. Just men. Each responsible for his own acts. I am free, no matter what rules surround me. If I find them tolerable, I tolerate them; if I find them too obnoxious, I break them. I am free, because I know that I alone am morally responsible for everything that I do. Lunar society is portrayed as akin to that of the Old West , tempered by the closeness of death by exposure to vacuum and by the shortage of women.
Because the sex ratio is about two men to each woman, the result is a society where women have a great deal of power, and any man who offends or touches a woman uninvited is likely to be attacked and eliminated through the nearest airlock.
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Marriages tend to be polyandrous , including group marriages and Mannie's own line marriage. In discussion with a woman from Kentucky, Mannie implies that underground, three-dimensional Lunar estate is recorded in the name of the woman or women in a marriage.
In a divorce, he implies, the separated man or men who contributed towards its cost would have money returned to him.
https://softologic.ru/includes/89-cloroquina-y-ctromax.php After decades during which antisocial individuals were selectively eliminated and the Authority exercised little real control, the Loonies live by the following code: Pay your debts, collect what is owed to you, and maintain your reputation and that of your family. As a result, little theft occurs, and disputes are settled privately or by informal Judges of good reputation. Failure to pay debts results in public shaming.
Reputation is highly important in this society; with a bad reputation, a person may find others unwilling to buy from or sell to him.
People are expected to pay back debts using all available funds. Duels are permitted, but custom requires that anyone who kills another must pay debts and look after the deceased's family. Exceptions are allowed in the case of self-defense. Retaliatory killings do occur, but typically a consensus establishes which party was in the right, and no long-standing feuds exist. The Vikings influence mores on the Loonies, save that it is the society as a whole rather than the Althing which judges the actions of individuals.
Except where exchange involves the Authority, a generally unregulated free market exists. The preferred currency is the dollar of the Bank of Hong Kong Luna, of which are exchangeable for a troy ounce of gold, a supply of which was shipped to Luna for this purpose, or more usefully for potable water or other commodities in published quantities. The Authority dollar circulates in dealings with the Authority, but this tends to lose ground over time against the Hong Kong Luna dollar. As in Stranger in a Strange Land , a band of social revolutionaries forms a secretive and hierarchical organization.
In this respect, the revolution is more reminiscent of the Bolshevik October revolution than of the American, and this similarity is reinforced by the Russian flavor of the dialect, and the Russian place names such as "Novy Leningrad". Continuing Heinlein's speculation about unorthodox social and family structures, The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress introduces the idea of a " line marriage ". Mannie is part of a century-old line marriage, wherein new spouses are introduced by mutual consent at regular intervals so that the marriage never comes to an end.
Divorce is rare, since divorcing a husband requires a unanimous decision on the part of all of his wives. Senior wives teach junior wives how to operate the family, granting financial security and ensuring that the children will never be orphaned.