November 1, COM booksellers: Polynesian Interconnections. Laie, Hawaii. Unique Polynesian Genes. Ancient Polynesian Migration Tracks. Search for "Pili and Paao from Samoa. Copyright Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Genetics.
Hawaii: A History: From Polynesian Kingdom to American State
Thor Heyerdahl's Theory. The Ancient Polynesian Migrations. Leiataua or Lei'ataua an Alii Lineage. Photos of Beautiful Pacific Islanders. Author: Peter Leiataua AhChing. Polynesian-Asian Families. Any Comments or Reactions to this Discussion? The Samoan word Tonga means "South. Tonga-Samoan Polynesians procreated with the Melanesians of Fiji and Vanuatu and developed the modern-day Tongan heritage, which explains the scientific findings of mixed Polynesian-Melanesian genetic markers of Tongans Genetics Melanesian cultural influence was very strong in the Tonga islands, thus Polynesians remained in Samoa.
These old traditions are well known in the southern Polynesian islands.
POLYNESIAN ORIGINS and MIGRATIONS: By Peter Leiataua AhChing
To learn more visit S Library of Congress. Ia vi'ia pea le Atua i ou galuega lelei. O lau pule lea, o ou galuega lava lea.
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The pattern of settlement also extended to the north of Samoa to the Tuvaluan atolls, with Tuvalu providing a stepping stone to migration into the Polynesian Outlier communities in Melanesia and Micronesia. The Polynesians encountered nearly every island within the vast Polynesian Triangle using outrigger canoes or double-hulled canoes.
The double-hulled canoes were two large hulls, equal in length, and lashed side by side.
The space between the paralleled canoes allowed for storage of food, hunting materials, and nets when embarking on long voyages. One traditional device for teaching navigation in the Pacific is a kind of stick chart used onshore in the Marshall Islands to serve as spatial representations of islands and the conditions around them. These were not carried on board and are not known to have been used by Polynesians,  who used non-physical devices such as songs and stories for memorizing the properties of stars, islands, and navigational routes. Navigation relies heavily on constant observation and memorization.
A navigator has to be constantly be aware of their surroundings. Navigators have to memorize where they have sailed from in order to know where they are.
The sun was the main guide for navigators because they could follow its exact points as it rose and set. At night time they would switch to using the rising and setting points of the stars. When there are no stars because of a cloudy night or during midday, a navigator would use the winds and swells to guide them. Polynesian navigators employed a wide range of techniques including the use of the stars, the movement of ocean currents and wave patterns, the air and sea interference patterns caused by islands and atolls , the flight of birds, the winds and the weather.
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Certain seabirds such as the white tern and noddy tern fly out to sea in the morning to hunt fish, then return to land at night. Navigators seeking land sail opposite the birds' path in the morning and with them at night, especially relying on large groups of birds, and keeping in mind changes during nesting season. Harold Gatty suggested that long-distance Polynesian voyaging followed the seasonal paths of bird migrations.
In "The Raft Book",  a survival guide he wrote for the U. There are some references in their oral traditions to the flight of birds, and some say that there were range marks onshore pointing to distant islands in line with the West Pacific Flyway. It is also believed that Polynesians, like many seafaring peoples, kept shore-sighting birds.
One theory is that voyagers took a frigatebird Fregata with them. This bird's feathers become drenched and useless if it lands on water, so voyagers would release it when they thought they were close to land, and would follow it if it did not return to the canoe. The positions of the stars helped guide Polynesian voyages. Stars, as opposed to planets, hold fixed celestial positions year-round, changing only their rising time with the seasons. Each star has a specific declination , and can give a bearing for navigation as it rises or sets.
Polynesian voyagers would set a heading by a star near the horizon, switching to a new one once the first rose too high. A specific sequence of stars would be memorized for each route. The latitudes of specific islands were also known, and the technique of "sailing down the latitude" was used. Some star compass systems specify as many as stars stars with known bearings, though most systems have only a few dozen illustration at right.
For navigators near the equator, celestial navigation is simplified since the whole celestial sphere is exposed.
Any star that passes through the zenith overhead moves along the celestial equator , the basis of the equatorial coordinate system. The Polynesians also used wave and swell formations to navigate. Many of the habitable areas of the Pacific Ocean are groups of islands or atolls in chains hundreds of kilometres long. Island chains have predictable effects on waves and currents. Navigators who lived within a group of islands would learn the effect various islands had on the swell shape, direction, and motion, and would have been able to correct their path accordingly. Even when they arrived in the vicinity of an unfamiliar chain of islands, they may have been able to detect signs similar to those of their home.
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Once they had arrived fairly close to a destination island, they would have been able to pinpoint its location by sightings of land-based birds, certain cloud formations, as well as the reflections shallow water made on the undersides of clouds. It is thought that the Polynesian navigators may have measured sailing time between islands in "canoe-days". The energy transferred from the wind to the sea produces wind waves. The waves that are created when the energy travels down away from the source area like ripples are known as swell.
When the winds are strong at the source area, the swell is larger. The longer the wind blows, the longer the swell lasts. Because the swells of the ocean can remain consistent for days, navigators relied on them to carry their canoe in a straight line from one house or point on the star compass to the opposite house of the same name.
Navigators were not always able to see stars; because of this, they relied on the swells of the ocean. Swell patterns are a much more reliable method of navigation than the actual waves which are determined by the local winds. Swells move in a straight direction which makes it easier for the navigator to determine whether the canoe is heading in the correct direction.
Tupaia had knowledge of islands and named 74 on his chart. He had not visited western Polynesia, as since his grandfather's time the extent of voyaging by Raiateans had diminished to the islands of eastern Polynesia. His grandfather and father had passed to Tupaia the knowledge as to the location of the major islands of western Polynesia and the navigation information necessary to voyage to Fiji , Samoa and Tonga. There is material evidence of Polynesian visits to some of the subantarctic islands to the south of New Zealand , which are outside Polynesia proper.
Remains of a Polynesian settlement dating back to the 13th century were found on Enderby Island in the Auckland Islands. In the midth century, Thor Heyerdahl proposed a new theory of Polynesian origins one which did not win general acceptance , arguing that the Polynesians had migrated from South America on balsa -log boats.
The current thinking is that sweet potato was brought to central Polynesia circa CE and spread across Polynesia from there, possibly by Polynesians who had traveled to South America and back. The results suggested Oceania-to-America contact. Chickens originated in southern Asia and the Araucana breed of Chile was thought to have been brought by Spaniards around However, the bones found in Chile were radiocarbon-dated to between and , well before the documented arrival of the Spanish.
DNA sequences taken were exact matches to those of chickens from the same period in American Samoa and Tonga , both over miles kilometers away from Chile. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and China and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.
However, in a later study, the original authors extended and elaborated their findings, concluding:. Interpretations based on poorly sourced and documented modern chicken populations, divorced from the archaeological and historical evidence, do not withstand scrutiny. Instead, this expanded account will confirm the pre-Columbian age of the El Arenal remains and lend support to our original hypothesis that their appearance in South America is most likely due to Polynesian contact with the Americas in prehistory.
In the last [ when? However, current archaeological evidence for human migration to and settlement of remote Oceania i. Recently, [ when? Jones of California Polytechnic State University have proposed contacts between Polynesians and the Chumash and Gabrielino of Southern California , between and Moreover, the Chumash word for "sewn-plank canoe", tomolo'o , may have been derived from kumulaa'au , a Hawaiian word meaning "useful tree".
In , an expedition starting on the Philippines sailed two modern Wharram -designed catamarans loosely based on a Polynesian catamaran found in Auckland Museum New Zealand. The boats were built in the Philippines by an experienced boat builder to Wharram designs using modern strip plank with epoxy resin glue built over plywood frames. The catamarans had modern Dacron sails, Terylene stays and sheets with modern roller blocks.
Wharram says he used Polynesian navigation to sail along the coast of Northern New Guinea and then sailed miles to an island for which he had modern charts, proving that it is possible to sail a modern catamaran along the path of the Lapita Pacific migration. A direct connection from New Zealand is possible, sailing with the Roaring Forties. In , some escapees from Tasmania arrived at Chiloe Island after sailing for 43 days. The first settlers who sailed to the Hawaiian Islands are said to have arrived as early as C.
E by Polynesians from the Marquesas Islands. He returned a year later and was killed in an altercation with natives at Kealakekua Bay.